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In 2015, review found that therapeutic doses of amphetamine and methylphenidate result in modest yet unambiguous improvements in cognition, including working memory, episodic memory, and inhibitory control, in normal healthy adultsthe cognition-enhancing effects of these drugs are known to occur through the indirect activation of both dopamine receptor D1 and adrenoceptor α2 in the prefrontal cortex Methylphenidate and other ADHD stimulants also improve task saliency and increase arousal.Stimulants such as amphetamine and methylphenidate can improve performance on difficult and boring tasks and are used by some students as a study and test-taking aid.Based upon studies of self-reported illicit stimulant use, performance-enhancing use, rather than use as a recreational drug, is the primary reason that students use stimulants.
Excessive doses of methylphenidate, above the therapeutic range, can interfere with working memory and cognitive control.Like amphetamine and bupropion, methylphenidate increases stamina and endurance in humans primarily through reuptake inhibition of dopamine in the central nervous system. Similar to the loss of cognitive enhancement when using large amounts, large doses of methylphenidate can induce side effects that impair athletic performance, such as rhabdomyolysis and hyperthermia.[While literature suggests it might improve cognition, most authors agree that using the drug recreationally as a study aid when ADHD diagnosis is not present does not actually improve GPA.Moreover, it has been suggested that students who use the drug for studying may be self-medicating for potentially deeper underlying issues.